Polycystic ovary syndrome (or PCOS) is a common hormonal condition in which women produce a surplus of androgens. This causes irregular ovulation, or even a lack of ovulation.Androgens are sometimes called “male hormones.” Men have very high levels of androgens, which are responsible for male body changes like hair growth and muscle mass. In women, androgens are necessary to make estrogen. Women with PCOS have androgen levels in the “high normal” range (for women). The additional androgen in these women can cause excessive hair growth and acne.Excess androgen production also leads to irregular or absent ovulation, which women experience as irregular or absent menstrual periods. Because of the problems with ovulation, women with PCOS may have difficulty becoming pregnant.Many women with PCOS are resistant to the action of the hormone insulin. This means that it takes larger than normal amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. These women are at increased risk for diabetes and heart disease. High insulin levels caused by insulin resistance can lead to excessive androgen production. PCOS affects approximately one of every 10 women.
What Causes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
The causes of PCOS are not completely understood, but it is likely an inherited condition.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
Women with PCOS can have a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, from very mild to severe. They may include:
• Irregular or absent menstrual periods
• Heavy vaginal bleeding; ovaries make progesterone for two weeks following ovulation. At the end of that two weeks, the progesterone level drops and the lining of the uterus sheds. This is a normal period. If a woman does not ovulate, she will not make progesterone. The lining of the uterus can become thick, the cells making up the lining can become crowded (a condition known as hyperplasia, which can lead to uterine cancer), and the woman can experience very heavy and prolonged bleeding.
• Oily skin and acne
• Acanthosis nigricans. Darkening and thickening of certain areas of the skin, especially in skin folds of the neck, armpits, and groin
• Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, abdomen, or thighs
• Thinning of hair on the crown of the head
• Type 2 diabetes
• Cardiovascular problems, including high cholesterol
• Multiple tiny ovarian cysts; some women with PCOS have a large number of tiny follicle cysts (visible by ultrasound) on their ovaries.
How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of PCOS is made based on physical signs and symptoms. Blood tests can be used to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the course of treatment. Ultrasound is not useful for making the diagnosis of PCOS.
There is no cure for PCOS. Treatment depends on the particular patient’s signs and symptoms, as well as her goals. Treatment options include:
• For women who are not ready to become pregnant, birth control pills are an excellent way to replace progesterone, establish regular periods, and lower androgen levels.
• If a woman wants to become pregnant, treatment is aimed at establishing regular ovulation.
• For women with PCOS and insulin resistance, medication (such as metformin) to improve insulin sensitivity may be useful.
Can Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Be Prevented?
While PCOS cannot be prevented or cured, it can be controlled, with varying degrees of success, by maintaining a healthy diet and by exercising. Many women will experience improvement in the signs and symptoms of PCOS if they are able to maintain a healthy weight.
The main risk factor for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a family history of it. Your chance of having it is higher if other women in your family have it or have irregular periods or diabetes. PCOS can be passed down from either your mother’s or father’s side. A family history of diabetes may increase your risk for PCOS because of the strong relationship between diabetes and PCOS.
Exams and Tests:
No single test can confirm that you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dr.Sankar DasMahapatra Senior gynaecologist will talk to you about your medical history, do a physical exam, and run some tests in gynaecology clinic in kolkata.
The medical history includes questions about your symptoms. At the first stage of Poly cystic ovary pcod treatment Dr.Sankar DasMahaPatra PCOS expert will ask you about changes in your weight, skin, hair, and menstrual cycle. Poly cystic ovary disease PCOD specialist Dr.Sankar DasMahaPatra will ask problems in getting pregnant, medicines you are taking, and your eating and exercise habits. You will also talk about any family history of hormone problems, including diabetes.
The physical exam checks your thyroid gland, skin, hair, breasts, and belly. You will have a blood pressure check and a pelvic exam to find out if you have enlarged or abnormal ovaries. Reputed gynaecologist Dr.Mahapatra will also check your body mass index (BMI).
You may have a pelvic ultrasound, which might show enlarged ovaries with small cysts. These are signs of PCOS. But many women with PCOS don’t have these signs.
Testing for problems from PCOS:
Diabetes. If you have PCOS, PCOS expert Dr.Sankar DasMahapatra recommends that you have blood glucose testing for diabetes by age 30. You may have this done at a younger age if you have PCOS and other risk factors for diabetes (such as obesity, lack of exercise, a family history of diabetes, or gestational diabetes during a past pregnancy). After this, Gynaecologist doctor will tell you how often to have tests for diabetes.
Heart disease. Your doctor will regularly check your cholesterol and triglycerides, blood pressure, and weight. This is because PCOS is linked to higher risks of high blood pressure, weight gain, high cholesterol, heart disease, hardening of arteries (atherosclerosis), heart attack, and stroke.
Uterine (endometrial) cancer. Regular menstrual cycle normally builds up and “clears off” the uterine lining every month. When the uterine lining builds up for a long time, precancer of the uterine lining (endometrial hyperplasia) can grow. If you have had infrequent menstrual periods for at least 1 year, famous gynaecologist Dr.Sankar DasMahapatra may use a transvaginal ultrasound and/or endometrial biopsy to look for signs of precancer or cancer.
Treatment of PCOS (PCOD):
Regular exercise, a healthy diet, weight control, and not smoking are all important parts of treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). You may also take medicine to balance your hormones.
• If you are overweight, weight loss may be the treatment you need. A small amount of weight loss is likely to help balance your hormones and start up your menstrual cycle and ovulation.
• Eat a balanced diet that includes lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products.
• Get regular exercise to help you control or lose weight and feel better.
• If you smoke, consider quitting. Women who smoke have higher levels of androgens than women who don’t smoke.
• If weight loss alone doesn’t start ovulation (or if you don’t need to lose weight), your doctor may have you try a medicine such as metformin or clomiphene to help you start to ovulate.
• If you aren’t planning a pregnancy, you can also use hormone therapy to help control your ovary hormones. To correct menstrual cycle problems, birth control hormones keep your endometrial lining from building up for too long. This can prevent uterine cancer.
• Hormone therapy also can help with male-type hair growth and acne. Birth control pills, patches, or vaginal rings are prescribed for hormone therapy. Androgen-lowering spironolactone (Aldactone) is often used with combined hormonal birth control. It helps with hair loss, acne, and male-pattern hair growth on the face and body (hirsutism).
• You can use other methods to treat acne and remove excess hair. For more information, see Home Treatment.
• Taking hormones doesn’t help with heart, blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes risks. This is why exercise and a healthy diet are key parts of your treatment.
• To learn more about hormones, see Medications.
• If weight loss and medicine don’t restart ovulation, you may want to try other treatments. For more information, see the topic Fertility Problems.
Regular checkups are important for identifying any PCOS complications, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, uterine cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.
Poly cystic ovary pcod treatment sometimes includes surgical procedure for women with infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who do not start ovulating after taking medicine. During surgery, ovarian function is improved by reducing the number of small cysts.
• Ovarian wedge resection is the surgical removal of part of an ovary. This is done to help regulate menstrual cycles and start normal ovulation. It is rarely used now because of the possibility of damaging the ovary and creating scar tissue.
• Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is a surgical treatment that can trigger ovulation in women who have PCOS and who have not responded to weight loss and fertility medicine. Electrocautery or a laser is used to destroy portions of the ovaries.